Dedicant Path ADF Virtues – Moderation

24 12 2013

ADF defines Moderation as “cultivating ones appetites so that one is neither a slave to them nor driven to ill health (mental or physical), through excess or deficiency.”

The dictionary defines it as –

1) Being within reasonable limits; not excessive or extreme

2) Not violent or subject to extremes; mild or calm; temperate.

3) a) of medium or average quantity or extent, b) of limited or average quality; mediocre.

4) Opposed to radical or extreme views or measures, especially in politics or religion.

In my view, the ADF definition of moderation doesn’t fully encompass the meaning of the term and the dictionary gives a better definition. It is about cultivating one’s appetites so you are not slaves to them or driven to ill health, but it is more. It is about being moderate in attitude and behaviour – calm not violent, moderate in views e.g in politics, and moderate in desires. Moderation is important in many areas of life. If one eats or drinks too much they will get diseases like diabetes, liver failure and heart disease. If they are too materialistic they will get into debt. If they work too much they may get ill from stress. Being excessive can lead to addictions – alcoholism, gambling problems and so on. Similarly eating too little can lead to malnutrition or anarexia and sleeping too little can lead to burnout. While we undoubtedly do need to increase certain things like healthy eating, on the whole, I think we suffer more as a civilisation from excess than we do from deficiency.

I think that western society is prone to excess in other areas of life too, like energy use. We are addicted to fossil fuels and consume them with no thought of the effects on the Earth Mother and other life forms. We buy lots of things brand new rather than reusing or recycling things, or making them ourselves, and then we create lots of waste. To be moderate means to walk lightly on the earth, to reduce our consumption, to live balanced. It means to live simply and minimally, spend money wisely, be frugal…and to live in voluntary poverty. Why do we buy so much new when we could buy almost everything we really need second hand or from a charity shop, saving money and the earth? Why do we take more than we really need to meet the basics in life? Moderation is vital to living in harmony with nature and saving it for future generations. It is vital to living in harmony with the self e.g for health. It is vital to avoiding the excesses that lead to dangerous and violent fundamentalism. Too often however, we judge moderation by the social expectations of society and I think that is wrong. Perhaps if we judged how moderate we were being by lives of the poor in Africa, we might get a better view of what it really means. To meet our basic needs, not all our wants. To not be greedy, gluttonous, lustful, slothful or engage in any of the other “seven deadly sins.” Importantly, moderation relates to other virtues too – it requires knowledge and the wisdom to apply it, and how can one share or be hospitable unless one lives moderately.

Various cultures around the world have held moderation to be a very important virtue. The ancient pagan Greeks and Romans held it in high esteem and called temperance a “cardinal virtue.” Epicurus in particular emphasised a life of simplicity and moderation, suggesting we concern ourselves with mental rather than physical pleasures, live a self sufficient life in the company of friends and engage regularly in philosophical pursuits. Aristotle thought that the virtues were at the mean between two extremes. And in the east, Taoism considers moderation to be one of its three Jewels for living in harmony with nature.

Frances Willard said “Temperance is moderation in the things that are good and total abstinence from the things that are foul.” I agree with him completely – it is very important to emphasise that moderation does not mean “everything in moderation” when it involves those things that are bad for us. For instance, science is discovering more and more evidence to suggest that the healthiest diet is a plant based, oil free, whole foods diet….pretty much a vegan diet that avoids all animal products. Some think its extreme to be a vegan because society doesn’t see it as normal, however if eating animal products is damaging our health and causing chronic diseases as the science is beginning to show – I think the moderate option, the option focused primarily on eating what is good for both the body and the earth, is surely switching to a plant based diet instead.

In conclusion, moderation is perhaps the most important virtue for us all to learn right now, its a virtue I regularly struggle to live by (especially when it comes to food) and it is one that takes a lot of practice. We must be self disciplined, work hard and, as the ADF definition says, “cultivate our appetites.” Unless we learn to do this, and learn soon, the effects on our own health, on the Earth Mother and on all life, will be disastrous.

ADF. Our Own Druidry: An introduction to Ár nDraíocht Féin and the Druid Path. Tucson: ADF Publishing, 2009

The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000.

Dr Fuhrman, Joel. Eat to Live: The amazing nutrient rich program for fast and sustained weight loss. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2003.

Dedicant Path ADF Virtues – Wisdom

2 10 2013

ADF defines Wisdom as “good judgment, the ability to perceive people and situations correctly, deliberate about and decide on the correct response.”

The dictionary defines wisdom as –
1) The ability or result of an ability to think and act utilizing knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense and insight.
2) Accumulated knowledge, erudition or enlightenment.
3) A wise saying or wise sayings or teachings.

In my opinion wisdom is the foundation of all virtues. How can someone know what is virtuous in a situation or judge between two contradictory virtues unless they have wisdom? The ancient Celts and Germanic tribes had many gods of wisdom and their mythologies include stories such as that of Fionn Mac Mumhail who ate Fintan the Salmon and became very wise or Odin who in the Havamal is said to have hung on Yggdrasil for nine days to receive the wisdom of the runes. These facts suggest that wisdom was highly valued by the ancients and they honoured those who were considered wise.

Many have offered definitions. Charles Spurgeon said that “wisdom is the right use of knowledge” while Aristotle said that it was knowing why things are a certain way, not just that they are. Socrates said wisdom begins in wonder, while Confucius said wisdom is learned through reflection, imitation and experience. I don’t think it’s an accident that when we think of the wise, we picture old philosophers sat teaching eager students how to live correctly. Philosophy means “love of wisdom” and it’s important to study philosophy to understand how to live wisely. Wisdom is about more than simply reasoning because it sometimes defies reason. It’s not just knowing what the right thing is to do, but also applying, and acting on, that knowledge. It’s a virtue because it’s an essential part of character building.

Being wise is something that takes many years to learn and, while as a young person I don’t like that fact, my own experience over the last several years points me to its truth. Experiences I’ve faced have taught me the value of wisdom, exposing my own naivety about life. When we’re young we think we know everything and will change the world, but ultimately we mature and realise our parents are right. I think I’m becoming wiser as I get a bit older but one needs to be of a significant age to receive such a worthy title as “wise”. I believe wisdom comes from accumulating a lifetime of experiences, mistakes and knowledge. It’s a continuum on which we’re always learning new lessons, gaining experiences and gradually getting wiser. While it’s possible to learn some wise sayings and apply them to our lives, most people develop wisdom through years of experience. To be wise, one needs to be humble, open to learning and exposed to many different viewpoints, but ultimately wisdom is about what works and therefore it’s rooted in traditions – the accumulated knowledge of generations.

ADF. Our Own Druidry: An Introduction to Ár nDraíocht Féin and the Druid Path. Tucson: ADF Publishing, 2009

Ellis, Peter Berresford. A Brief History of the Druids, London: Constable & Robinson Ltd, 2002.

Davidson, H.R Ellis. Gods and Myths of Northern Europe. London: Penguin Books, 1964.

Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged. Harper Collins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003.