Liturgy 1.15 – Describe possible cultural variances for elements discussed in questions 3 through 14 above.

23 07 2017

Describe possible cultural variances for elements discussed in questions 3 through 14 above. (minimum 100 words)

Centre/ Gates – The centre, gates and gatekeeper will vary depending on the hearth culture. For example, in a Hellenic hearth culture, the tree may be replaced with a Mountain/ Stone representing Mt Olympus. In a Norse hearth culture, the tree will be seen as Yggdrasil and the Well as the Well of Wyrd, while the gatekeeper may be the god Heimdall and there may be gates to the nine worlds. In a Celtic hearth culture, the tree will be the Bile, the Well will be the Well of Segais and the gatekeeper will often be Manannan Mac Lyr.

Sacred spaces – Sacred spaces may depend on the hearth culture, with Celtic and Germanic hearth cultures focusing more on liminal spaces and sacred groves, while Hellenic and Roman hearth culture view temples as the sacred spaces.

Earth Mother – The name of the Earth Mother will change with each hearth culture. She will be called Gaia in a Hellenic hearth culture, Jord in a Norse hearth culture, Nerthus in an Anglo-Saxon hearth culture and Terra Mater in a Roman hearth culture. She may be considered more as the goddess of the earth in Norse, Anglo-Saxon or Hellenic hearth cultures, while a local goddess of sovereignty and the waters in a Celtic hearth culture.

Fire/Water – In a Norse hearth culture, the basic elements of the universe will be seen as the Fire of Muspelheim and the Ice of Niflheim. In a Celtic culture, these elements will be Fire and Water. There are also different goddesses of fire depending on the culture. For example, in the Irish Celtic hearth culture, the fire may represent the goddess Brighid, while in the Hellenic hearth culture the fire represents Hestia, and in the Roman hearth culture, it represents Vesta.

Fire/ Well and Tree – The Well is often seen differently depending on the hearth culture. In Norse and Anglo-Saxon hearth cultures, the well is equated with the three Wells of Wyrd, Mimir and Hvergelmir, while in the Celtic hearth culture it is the Well of Segais. Similarly, the name of the tree is different, with the Norse calling it Yggdrasil, the Anglo-Saxons calling it Eormensyl and the Celts calling it Bile.

Outdwellers – In Norse and Anglo-Saxon hearth cultures, the outdwellers will be seen as the Giants, the Jotnar and perhaps deities such as Loki, Hel or the world serpent. They are the forces of chaos held at bay by Thor. In the Hellenic hearth culture, they will be seen as the Titans, the primordial powers of creation. In the Celtic hearth culture, they will be identified with the Formorians who were defeated by the Tuathe De Danaan.

Three Kindreds – The three Kindreds may be seen slightly differently depending on the hearth culture. Each hearth culture will have their own pantheons with their own gods and there will often not be a standard deity for the same thing across all cultures. For instance, there is no deity for fire in Norse and Anglo-Saxon cultures, and there is no definitive deity of the Sun in Celtic cultures. The particular ancestors honoured in each hearth culture may differ, such as the Roman Lares Familiaris and the Norse Disir. Finally, the names of the spirits are different in each hearth culture, from the Anglo-Saxon elves and dwarves, to the Hellenic dryads to the Celtic Sidhe and Fae.

Filling Out Cosmic Picture – In a Celtic hearth culture, the cosmos may be viewed as three realms – land, sea and sky. In a Norse or Anglo-Saxon culture, the cosmos may be viewed as seven or nine worlds. In a Hellenic hearth culture, the cosmos may be viewed as made up of the Underworld of Hades, the middle world and the Upper World of Mt Olympus.

Key offerings – The focuses for key offerings will change depending on the hearth culture. For example, in at Samhain, one might honour Odin and Hel in a Norse hearth culture, while one honours the Dagda, Morrigan or Donn in a Celtic hearth culture, and Hades in a Hellenic hearth culture

Sacrifice – Sacrifices may also be different in each hearth culture. In Celtic and Norse hearth cultures, there may be more focus on offering metallic objects such as broken weapons or mead as a libation, while in Hellenic and Roman hearth cultures, the offerings may focus on olive oil or wine.

Omen – In Celtic hearth cultures, the Omen is usually taken using Oghams, while in Norse and Anglo-Saxon hearth cultures runes are used. In Hellenic and Roman Hearth cultures auguries using the flight of birds may be used.

Blessing Cup – Mead is considered a sacred drink in many hearth cultures, but especially in Celtic and Germanic hearth cultures. Similarly, wine may be used in more Mediterranean hearth cultures such as the Hellenic and Roman ones. These sacred drinks are often used as the “Waters of Life” in the Blessing Cup.

Bonewits, Isaac. Neopagan Rites: A Guide to Creating Public Rituals that Work. Minneapolis: Llewellyn Publications, 2007. Print.

ADF. “Standard Liturgical Outline.” ADF. Web.

Bonewits, Isaac. “Step by Step through A Druid Worship Ceremony.” ADF. Web.

Brooks, Arnold. “A Druidic Ritual Primer.” ADF. Web

Brooks, Arnold. “Goals of Group Ritual.” ADF. Web.

Corrigan, Ian. “The ADF Outline of Worship: A Briefing for Newcomers.” ADF. Web. 

Corrigan, Ian. “The Intentions of Drudic Ritual.” ADF. Web.

Corrigan, Ian. “The Worlds and the Kindreds.” ADF. Web.

Paradox. “Sacred Space, an Exploration of the Triple Center.” ADF. Web.

Thomas, Kirk. “The Nature of Sacrifice.” ADF. Web.

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